5 Ruth Bader Ginsburg Supreme Court docket rulings to find out about

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5 Ruth Bader Ginsburg Supreme Court rulings to know about

Ruth Bader Ginsburg sat on the supreme court bench for over two decades before she died of complications from cancer on Friday.

She became the second woman to be named to the Supreme Court by President Bill Clinton in 1993 after a career marked by the struggle for women's reproductive rights, gender equality, and other progressive causes. Before becoming a judge, she served as an attorney and general counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1973 to 1980.

During her years at the bank, she was part of some notable decisions.

Below is a list of five that includes:

United States v. Virginia

Ginsburg wrote the majority opinion that ended same-sex admission at the Virginia Military Institute. The school argued that women were not suitable to train at the academy or endure their educational model.

In addition, she argued that her exclusive admissions policy was in line with other educational institutions in the state. It quoted Mary Baldwin University, a liberal arts college for women.

The United States filed a lawsuit against the policy, saying it violated the 14th Amendment that gives citizenship to anyone born in the United States.

"Neither the goal of producing citizen soldiers nor the method of implementation of VMI are inherently unsuitable for women," wrote Ginsburg. "This goal is certainly big enough to include women who are now considered citizens of our American democracy, who are equal to men."

Stenberg v. Carhart

Ginsburg quoted Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey to argue that a Nebraska law prohibiting partial abortion is not intended to protect women's lives as it was written. Under the law, doctors could lose their medical license to perform the procedure if this is done without regard to the health of the expectant mother.

In 2000, the court struck down the law after finding it violated due process.

"Government regulation that has the purpose or effect of placing a significant barrier in the way of a woman seeking an abortion of a non-viable fetus is against the constitution," wrote Ginsburg. "One such barrier is when the state prevents a woman from choosing the procedure her doctor believes will best protect the woman in the exercise of her constitutional freedom."

Bush versus Gore

The court's decision to end a manual recount of ballots in Florida to determine the outcome of the 2000 presidential election effectively turned the presidency over to George W. Bush. The Bush campaign had filed a motion to stop a recount, while the Vice President Al Gore campaign was trying to keep it going.

Ginsburg famously wrote "I disagree" in Remarks to argue her objection to the decision. The phrase was an obvious departure from the tradition of using the term "respectful".

Safford Unified School District versus Redding

The Supreme Court ruled that after the fourth amendment, a 13-year-old girl's rights were violated when Arizona school officials striped her. In 2003, an assistant principal at Safford Middle School in Safford, Ariz., Ordered the girl to remove her outerwear after another student accused her of distributing prescription and non-prescription drugs.

A search in their belongings found nothing.

In her opinion, Ginsburg described the girl's treatment as "abusive" and said it was "not reasonable for him to believe that the law would allow it".

In an interview with USA Today, she expressed frustration with her male colleagues who minimized the girl's experience.

"You've never been a 13-year-old girl," she said. "It's a very sensitive age for a girl. I didn't think that my colleagues, some of them, would fully understand."

Ledbetter V. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

In 2007, the court ruled 5-4 in favor of the tire giant after an employee claimed she was paid less than her male colleagues. Lilly Ledbetter attributed the wage gap to her gender, which violated the 1964 Civil Rights Act, she argued.

Goodyear argued that discrimination claims should be filed within 180 days of the alleged violation, which did not occur, meaning that Ledbetter could only legally enforce 180 days of wage discrimination rather than her nearly two decades of employment with the company.

In her dissenting opinion, Ginsburg highlighted the problem of wage differentials over long periods of time.

"Often, as in Ledbetter's case, wage differentials appear in small steps. Suspicions that discrimination is at work only develop over time," she wrote. "Additionally, comparative pay information is often hidden from the employee's point of view. Employers can keep secret the pay gaps maintained between managers, no less the reasons for those differences.

"Her initial willingness to give her employer the benefit of the doubt shouldn't prevent her from later questioning the then current and continued payment of a gender-depressed wage," she continued.

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